Economic theories of fascism: ideological origins, doctrines, role.
The level of public handicrafts was high, first of all pottery and bronze foundry. Local centers of metallurgy and bronze processing appeared. The exchange has become permanent and regional. Copper, bronze, gold, amber, faience, and salt were exchanged.
The transition to iron production at the turn of the II-I millennium BC. BC became a defining moment in the early Iron Age. In Western Europe, it was divided into two periods: the Hallstatt period (900-500 BC) and the La Tène period (500 BC, 17 BC – the beginning of our era). The Hallstatt culture was characterized by the coexistence of bronze and iron tools, the transition from hoe to plow and plow. In the La Tène period, iron sickles and plowshares appeared, and crafts developed, especially blacksmithing, jewelry, and pottery.
At the beginning of our era in the territory conquered by Rome, the Latin culture was replaced by the so-called provincial Roman culture. The main craft professions were blacksmiths, gunsmiths, potters, builders.
Samples of their products were found in large numbers both in excavated settlements and in cemeteries. Many handicraft workshops were discovered, including blacksmithing, pottery, and jewelry. Among the found products are most often iron axes, sickles, knives, fishing hooks, spearheads, arrows, bronze buckles, bracelets, pins, utensils, antique jewelry, ceramics, necklaces, amphorae. The improvement of tools, the expansion of their production from metal, the division of the production sphere into agriculture and handicrafts, and the production of an additional product created the economic conditions for the emergence of states.
The first of them were formed in the Ancient East (Egypt, India, Mesopotamia) at the turn of the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Thus, in the early of the economy of primitive times, hunting, fishing, and fruit picking predominated. Later, in connection with the improvement of tools (harpoons, scrapers, bows, axes, boats, hammers, sickles, spears) began processing skins, pottery, there was fine art, construction of ground structures.
During the Bronze and Iron Ages there were great changes in the development of productive forces. A loom appeared, cattle breeding developed, and especially agriculture. The first division of labor arose between them, and economic exchange was established between individual clans, communities, and tribes.
World History / Ed. Kovalevsky MV – K., 2000. History of the ancient world / Ed. Myakusheva VI – M., 1998 Payovyk BD, Matysyakevych 3. M., Mateiko RM Economic history of Ukraine and the world: Textbook / Ed. BD Lanovik. – K.: Vicar, 1999.
Economic theories of fascism: ideological origins, doctrines, role. Abstract
Ideological origins of fascist economic concepts. Economic doctrines of German and Italian fascism. The social role of fascism and its modification
The essence of economic theories of fascism is reduced to the theoretical justification of the economic policy of fascist states and the formation of the ideology of fascism. The formation of these theories was significantly influenced by the ideas of F. Liszt and representatives of the historical school in Germany, the concept of solidarity L. Duguid (France), according to which the essence, functions and goals of the bourgeois state are based on the principle of solidarity of all members.
The racial and geopolitical doctrines of fascism were also decisive. Geopolitics is a concept that justifies any expansion by referring to the data of physical, economic, political geography and with the help of the ideas of Malthusianism, social Darwinism, racism justifies the conquest of foreign territories.
In Kaiser’s Germany, the main theorist of territorial encroachments was F. Ratzel, a supporter of geographical determinism, who formulated “the basic laws of spatial growth of states.”
In Hitler’s Germany, Hitler’s personal adviser K. Haushofer preached the theory of “fair distribution of living space” in favor of “Greater Germany” through the absorption of European states, the destruction of Slavic peoples and the settlement of their lands by the “higher German race. ” Fascist theorists skillfully used the works of prominent German philosophers – F. Hegel, F. Nietzsche, especially the ideas of a strong personality and strong power.
These factors, which led to the development of fascist economic doctrines, gave rise to mostly homogeneous and more economical political theories. Regardless of the specific country, all such theories have several common features: economic nationalism, apology for economic and political expansion, social demagoguery, intolerance of the democratic and workers’ movement.
One of the elements of economic theories of fascism is the concept of “corporate order” aimed at ensuring the conditions of class peace, on the one hand, and the mobilization of material and financial resources to prepare for military action – on the other. A centralized system was created, in many respects similar to the Soviet (Stalinist) one, but with a much higher technical level and militarization of production.
Interestingly, according to the Labor Law of 1934, the social system of Germany was proclaimed “German socialism” by workers – the owners of cars and jobs, entrepreneurs – the owners of enterprises in general. The slogan “The common good is higher than the private” was put forward, similar to the socialist one.
The economic concept of German fascism was also reflected in the theory of the “third way” initiated by G. Feder, K. Brinkmann, X. Bakke and other theorists. They believed that the main path of world economic and political development lay between socialism and capitalism, and that the “third way” was determined by the goal of the whole nation, which had a non-economic meaning (for example, the idea of National sovereignty). The existence of a national goal eliminates social contradictions within the economic system of National Socialism, built on racial grounds.
Ensuring the economic unity of the German nation relied on a system of terror, the elimination of non-Aryan races from the economic life of the country, the spread of fascist ideology, strengthening the economic functions of the state and the German kind of corporatism. Within the unions of entrepreneurs, the largest capitalists had to play the role of “natural leaders” or Fuhrers.
The absence of social conflicts within the national economy, according to fascist ideologues, created the conditions for world geopolitical change. At the heart of the German concept of the world economy was the principle of economic nationalism, which guarantees the economic self-sufficiency of Germany (autarky).
Economic nationalism was opposed to the system of international division of labor, which had already developed and was called “the English form of world economic expansion” (in the terminology of fascist ideologues). The ideologues of fascism understood the future development of the world economy as the forcible formation of closed economic blocs (spaces) surrounded by protectionist barriers is characterized by racial homogeneity of the population. Economic blocs were to be created on the principle of concentration of raw materials and food zones around a strong industrial state (Germany).
Mandatory elements of the economic concept of German fascism were demagogic claims about the need to combat “interest slavery” which, in essence, were aimed at abandoning reparations and other obligations of Germany under the Treaty of Versailles.
The cause of all the contradictions of capitalism was proclaimed to be loan capital, and in the global sense, the governments of the victorious states in the First World War, which, according to German ideologues, raise money for their anonymous masters on Wall Street, London and Paris. The ideologues of fascism argued that the creative function was performed by the industrial capital of German entrepreneurs only, and not of any other nation. Despite the categorical nature of such views, they were shared not only by national chauvinists, but also by the workers and the petty bourgeoisie.
The official doctrine of Italian fascism was the concept of a “corporate state”, according to which a fascist state based on a system of corporations must realize a national goal.
A corporation operating in the economic sphere must meet certain requirements and have a sectoral structure and leadership led by representatives of the Fascist Party, the Association of Entrepreneurs and the top fascist unions, as well as comply with the decisions of the Central Corporate Body and have compulsory universal participation. The economic concept of Spanish fascism was called “national syndicalism”; in principle, it did not differ from the Italian.
In the history of economic thought, fascism was and remains the most reactionary political trend, reflecting the interests of aggressive and extremist forces. In addition, it is an openly terrorist dictatorship, the main tool of which is a totalitarian state.
Fascism arose as a reaction to the creation of a socialist state and in a short time accomplished what other parties could not accomplish – without changing the essential foundations of the capitalist system, to adapt the old system to the new conditions. The fascist dictatorship played a dual role: it suppressed the revolutionary movement within the country, directing the population to the tasks necessary for monopolies, and mitigated the internal contradictions of capitalism by carrying out foreign economic expansion.
If the fascist movement had not concealed its ultimate goal and stood for capitalism from its beginnings, it would not have found so many supporters among the working class and the petty bourgeoisie and would not have been needed by the monopolistic bourgeoisie. The mass social basis of fascism was the middle class – the petty bourgeoisie of the city and the countryside, which was characterized by the greatest patriotism. The authors of fascist theories exploited national feelings and traditions, antitrust sentiments, and dissatisfaction literacy narrative topics with the bourgeois-parliamentary system.
After the Second World War, despite the defeat of the German army and the official rejection of the doctrine of racism and geopolitics, fascist concepts were further developed in the economic views of the ideologues of neo-fascism. Neo-fascism is now based on revanchism, seeking revenge for past defeats.
Neo-fascists call for the creation of a “total state” capable of uniting the economic interests of all social strata.