Neo-Freudianism as a continuation of Freudian psychoanalysis.
Medical. The level of health of men and women, the availability of appropriate medical genetic counseling facilities, etc. are taken into account. Social. The level and living conditions of people, the availability of public health, housing, children’s preschools, schools, developed infrastructure of society are determined. Legal. The level of certain legislative protection of the family, mother and child is considered. Psychological. The peculiarities of the attitude of men and women – potential parents to the birth rate in the family are analyzed, taking into account the peculiarities of their psyche, the situation in the family. Ethical. It is considered the attitude of parents to children, the number of them in the family, the presence or absence of assistance from grandparents in the care and upbringing of grandchildren, the solution of other issues based not only on feelings but also on relevant moral standards … Ecological. The state of the environment, which directly affects the birth rate in a given region, is taken into account. This is especially acute for the population of Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Chernihiv and other regions of Ukraine, which suffered significant radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Type of culture, traditions. It is well known that in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and some other countries it is considered the norm for 6-8 to 10 children to be born into a family. At the same time, in large European cities, and in particular in Kyiv, this norm is one or two children.
These factors are not single-row or single-row. Some of them are integrative, for example, social, psychological, ethical, environmental. They are interconnected and can be considered separately only conditionally.
In recent decades in Ukraine, as in the rest of the civilized world, there is a tendency to reduce the birth rate. In the territory of the former USSR in 1965-1966, there were 246 births per 100 women of reproductive age. In 1980-1981 – 224. In 1988 – 245.
And to ensure the expanded reproduction of the population requires 260-270 births. This birth rate at best only ensures the replacement of generations, but not population growth.
In recent years, Ukraine’s population has even declined. Characteristically, this happens in parallel with the rejuvenation of mothers. In 1959-1960, the largest number of children was born to women between the ages of 20 and 34, and in 1990, from 15 to 29. This is a somewhat dangerous trend for the state and for the nation.
What are the reasons for declining birth rates in many countries around the world? This acute issue is attracting the attention of demographers, government officials and politicians. And if we take into account the uneven decline in birth rates in different regions of the world or in such super-empires as the former Soviet Union, it becomes clear that some “big” nations are in danger of extinction in the long run. And this can not but worry the leading ideologues of state nations, they pay great attention to the quantitative composition of their nation.
Neo-Freudianism as a continuation of Freudian psychoanalysis. Abstract
One of the most influential ideological currents of the XX century. became psychoanalysis. Emerging in psychiatry as a kind of approach to the treatment of neuroses, psychoanalysis initially did not claim the role of philosophical doctrine, which would reveal and explain the patterns of social development
Over time, the theoretical positions and attitudes of psychoanalysis began to https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ be used in philosophy to explain personal, cultural and social phenomena.
Exploring psychoanalysis as a set of hypotheses and theories that explain the role of the unconscious in human life, we should distinguish three aspects: cognitive, socio-cultural and therapeutic-practical. Consider the content of the first and second aspects of psychoanalysis. The founder of psychoanalysis in its classical form was the Austrian psychologist, neurologist, psychiatrist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939).
His theoretical views were formed under the influence of the traditions of classical natural science materialism and evolutionism at a time when there was a crisis of traditional ideas about the mental life of man, when it became clear that it is impossible to reveal the secret of human existence based only on its natural characteristics.
Freud’s psychoanalysis was an attempt to synthesize two areas of study of human nature:
disclosure of mental impulses of the inner world, the meaning of human behavior; analysis of the influence of cultural and social environment on the formation of mental life and mental reactions.
And this in turn involved a deeper study of the structure of personality, because, analyzing and evaluating human activity, Freud always came across such characteristics of human behavior that could not be explained by the peculiarities of his conscious attitude to reality and to himself.
The main thing in psychoanalysis was the discovery of the unconscious, its philosophical understanding and interpretation. S. Freud, putting forward his concept of the unconscious, emphasized that it was not the subject of study of classical philosophy and psychology, and saw the reason for this in the cult of reason and consciousness. The human psyche, in his opinion, is divided into two areas: conscious and unconscious. They determine the essential characteristics of the individual.
The division of the psyche into conscious and unconscious, wrote Freud, is the main prerequisite for psychoanalysis, and only it allows to understand and subject to scientific research often observed and very important pathological processes of mental life. In other words, psychoanalysis cannot consider the conscious as the essence of the mental, but must consider the consciousness as a quality of the mental, which may or may not join its other qualities. Initially, Freud’s psyche was represented by three instances: the unconscious, the subconscious and consciousness.
The unconscious is the part of the psyche where unconscious desires are concentrated and ideas are pushed out of consciousness. The subconscious is the meaning of the psychic life, which is not currently realized, but can easily become conscious (memory of thinking, etc.). Freud associated consciousness mainly with the perception of the external world.
The source of mental dynamics, according to Freud, is the desire of the unconscious, seeking relief through action. But for this it is necessary that they be included in the sphere of consciousness, which controls the implementation of acts of behavior. This becomes possible only through the mediation of the subconscious, which censors the desires of the unconscious. (Censorship, according to Freud, is a figurative representation of those forces that seek not to let into consciousness unconscious thoughts and desires). Later, Freud clarified that the mental activity of the unconscious obeys the principle of pleasure, and the mental activity of the subconscious – the principle of reality.
Having created a theoretical system of the psyche, Freud had to prove its legitimacy. To this end, he singled out certain examples of mental activity, namely: dreams, associative thinking, hypnotic suggestion, wit, psychopathology of everyday life (forgetting names, losing things, etc.). Freud’s theory of the conscious and the unconscious became the basis of the psychoanalytic system.
An important component of Freudian psychoanalysis was the idea of libido. Based on the data of natural sciences and adhering to the biological style of thinking, Freud considered the main driver of human behavior two instincts: self-preservation and sexual. Sexual instinct, libido, became the central link in psychoanalysis. Libido, according to Freud, is a mental energy that underlies all sexual manifestations of the individual, a force that changes quantitatively and which can measure all processes and transformations in the field of sexual arousal.
The doctrine of libido is a further development of the energy approach to the psyche. Mental energy is interpreted by Freud as the energy of libido, as well as a substance that changes quantitatively. Instinctive impulse can be discharged into action, displaced (displacement is the transfer of mental content from consciousness to the unconscious and its preservation in the unconscious) back to the unconscious, or the energy of sexual urges deviates from the direct goal and goes to non- sexual (social).
Freud calls this last process sublimation. From the point of view of the doctrine of libido, the process of human mental development is essentially a biologically determined process of transformation of his sexual instinct. However, Freud was forced to adjust his system for a number of reasons.
Difficulties associated with the reduction of all human behavior to manifestations of sexuality, on the one hand, the impact of the First World War (human suffering is not associated with sexual experiences, but with their traumatic trials of war) – on the other, criticism of opponents – with third, forced Freud to reconsider the structure of instincts (will to power, sexual-erotic, instincts of vanity, aggression, etc.).
Freud’s ideas about the subjective reality of man are peculiar and ambiguous. In “I and It” (1923), he unfolds the structural concept of the psyche, highlighting three areas: “It” (id, ig), “I” (ego, ego) and “Super-I”, super-ego , super-ero). By “It” Freud understands the most primitive substance, which encompasses everything innate, genetically primary, the deepest layer of unconscious urges, which obeys the principle of pleasure and knows nothing about reality or society.
The requirements of “It” must be met by “I”. “I”, as Freud believed, is the realm of the conscious, it is the mediator between the unconscious and the external world, acting on the principle of reality. “I” seeks to make “It” acceptable to the world and bring the world in line with the desires of “It”. Freud attached special importance to the “Super-I” which is the source of moral and religious feelings. If “It” is genetically determined, “I” is an individual experience, then “Super-I” is the result of the influence of other people. “Super-I” is an inner personal conscience, an instance that embodies the attitudes of society.
These theoretical positions became the basis for a new look at the nature of the mental. Freud’s teachings, while not philosophical, contain significant worldview potential, primarily due to a specific understanding of the essence of man and culture. Continuing psychoanalytic practice, he turns from the study of individual behavior to social.
Freud tries to interpret the entire history of mankind, social events, and social life from the standpoint of his own theory of psychoanalysis and biogenetic law.